Rheumatoid Arthritis in the Foot and
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disease in which certain cells of the immune
system malfunction and attack healthy joints.
RA causes inflammation in the lining (synovium) of joints,
most often the joints of the hands and feet. The signs of inflammation can include
pain, swelling, redness, and a feeling of warmth around affected joints. In
some patients, chronic inflammation results in damage to the cartilage and
bones in the joint. Serious damage can lead to permanent joint destruction,
deformity, and disability.
When joints become inflamed due to RA, the synovium thickens
and produces an excess of joint fluid. This overabundance of fluid, along with
inflammatory chemicals released by the immune system, causes swelling and
damage to the joint’s cartilage and bones.
Affecting the Foot and Ankle
Foot problems caused by RA commonly occur in the forefoot (the ball of the
foot, near the toes), although RA can also affect other areas of the foot and
ankle. The most common signs and symptoms of RA-related foot problems, in
addition to the abnormal appearance of deformities, are pain, swelling, joint
stiffness, and difficulty walking.
Deformities and conditions associated with RA may include:
RA is diagnosed on the basis of a clinical examination as well as blood
To further evaluate the patient’s foot and ankle problems,
the surgeon may order x-rays and/or other imaging tests.
by the Foot and Ankle Surgeon
While treatment of RA focuses on the medication prescribed by a patient’s
primary doctor or rheumatologist, the foot and ankle surgeon will develop a
treatment plan aimed at relieving the pain of RA-related foot problems. The
plan may include one or more of the following options:
When RA produces pain and deformity in the foot that is not relieved
through other treatments, surgery may be required. The foot and ankle surgeon
will select the procedure best suited to the patient’s condition and lifestyle.
Information provided by The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
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